Herd Sports Chew was designed and formulated on the basis of what is currently known in the literature about the potential benefits of certain supplements. From this starting point, key ingredients were selected and formulated into a premium chew. Assorted peer-reviewed medical and scientific literature supporting the design of Herd Sports Chew are listed below with links to their associated abstracts:

White Willow Bark

1. Schmid B, Ludtke R, Selbmann HK, et al.Efficacy and tolerability of a standardized willow bark extract in patients with osteoarthritis: randomized placebo-controlled, double blind clinical trial . Phytother Res. 2001;15: 344-350. 
2. Chrubasik S, Eisenberg E, Balan E, Weinberger T, Luzzati R, Conradt C. 
Treatment of low back pain exacerbations with willow bark extract: a randomized double-blind study . Am J Med. 2000;109: 9-14.

3. Vlachojannis J, Magora F, Chrubasik S. Willow species and aspirin: different mechanism of actions . Phytother Res. 2011;25: 1102-1104. 
4. Chrubasik S, Kunzel O, Model A, Conradt C, Black A. Treatment of low back pain with a herbal or synthetic anti-rheumatic: a randomized controlled study. Willow bark extract for low back pain . Rheumatology (Oxford). 2001;40: 1388-1393. 
5. Schmid B, Kotter I, Heide L. Pharmacokinetics of salicin after oral administration of a standardised willow bark extract . Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2001;57: 387-391. 
6. Hostanska K, Jurgenliemk G, Abel G, Nahrstedt A, Saller R. 
Willow bark extract (BNO1455) and its fractions suppress growth and induce apoptosis in human colon and lung cancer cells. Cancer Detect Prev. 2007;31: 129-139. 

7. Kong CS, Kim KH, Choi JS, Kim JE, Park C, Jeong JW. Salicin, an Extract from White Willow Bark, Inhibits Angiogenesis by Blocking the ROS-ERK Pathways . Phytother Res. 2014.


Valerian Root

8. Leathwood PD, Chauffard F, Heck E, Munoz-Box R. Aqueous extract of valerian root (Valeriana officinalis L.) improves sleep quality in man . Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1982;17: 65-71.
9. Donath F, Quispe S, Diefenbach K, Maurer A, Fietze I, Roots I. Critical evaluation of the effect of valerian extract on sleep structure and sleep quality . Pharmacopsychiatry. 2000;33: 47-53.
10. Bent S, Padula A, Moore D, Patterson M, Mehling W. Valerian for sleep: a systematic review and meta-analysis . Am J Med. 2006;119: 1005-1012.



11. Dyckner T, Wester PO. Effect of magnesium on blood pressure . Br Med J (Clin Res Ed). 1983;286: 1847-1849. 
12. Sojka JE, Weaver CM. Magnesium supplementation and osteoporosis. Nutr Rev. 1995;53: 71-74. 


L- Glutamine

13. Wischmeyer PE. Clinical applications of L-glutamine: past, present, and future . Nutr Clin Pract. 2003;18: 377-385. 
14. Castell LM, Newsholme EA. The effects of oral glutamine supplementation on athletes after prolonged, exhaustive exercise . Nutrition. 1997;13: 738-742. 
15. Gleeson M. 
Dosing and efficacy of glutamine supplementation in human exercise and sport training . J Nutr. 2008;138: 2045S-2049S.


Vitamins C and E

16. Van Straten M, Josling P. Preventing the common cold with a vitamin C supplement: a double-blind, placebo-controlled survey . Adv Ther. 2002;19: 151-159. 
17. Meydani M, Evans WJ, Handelman G, et al. Protective effect of vitamin E on exercise-induced oxidative damage in young and older adults . Am J Physiol. 1993;264: R992-998. 
18. Cannon JG, Orencole SF, Fielding RA, et al. Acute phase response in exercise: interaction of age and vitamin E on neutrophils and muscle enzyme release . Am J Physiol. 1990;259: R1214-1219.
19. Jeng KC, Yang CS, Siu WY, Tsai YS, Liao WJ, Kuo JS. Supplementation with vitamins C and E enhances cytokine production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells in healthy adults . Am J Clin Nutr. 1996;64: 960-965. 
20. Evans WJ. Vitamin E, vitamin C, and exercise . Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;72: 647S-652S.
21. Jacobs EJ, Henion AK, Briggs PJ, et al. 
Vitamin C and vitamin E supplement use and bladder cancer mortality in a large cohort of US men and women . Am J Epidemiol. 2002;156: 1002-1010.

22. Losonczy KG, Harris TB, Havlik RJ. Vitamin E and vitamin C supplement use and risk of all-cause and coronary heart disease mortality in older persons: the Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly . Am J Clin Nutr. 1996;64: 190-196. 
23. Lippman SM, Klein EA, Goodman PJ, et al. Effect of selenium and vitamin E on risk of prostate cancer and other cancers: the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT) . JAMA. 2009;301: 39-51. 
24. Morris MC, Beckett LA, Scherr PA, et al. 
Vitamin E and vitamin C supplement use and risk of incident Alzheimer disease . Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord. 1998;12: 121-126.



25. Ajibola A, Chamunorwa JP, Erlwanger KH. Nutraceutical values of natural honey and its contribution to human health and wealth . Nutr Metab (Lond). 2012;9: 61.
26. Kreider RR, CJ; Lancaster, SL; Kerksick, C; Greenwood, M. Honey: An Alternative Sports Gel. Strength and Conditioning Journal. 2002;24: 50-51. 
27. Swellam T, Miyanaga N, Onozawa M, et al. 
Antineoplastic activity of honey in an experimental bladder cancer implantation model: in vivo and in vitro studies . Int J Urol. 2003;10: 213-219.

28. Fauzi AN, Norazmi MN, Yaacob NS. Tualang honey induces apoptosis and disrupts the mitochondrial membrane potential of human breast and cervical cancer cell lines . Food Chem Toxicol. 2011;49: 871-878. 


29. Mori A, Lehmann S, O'Kelly J, et al. Capsaicin, a component of red peppers, inhibits the growth of androgen-independent, p53 mutant prostate cancer cells . Cancer Res. 2006;66: 3222-3229. 
30. Zhang R, Humphreys I, Sahu RP, Shi Y, Srivastava SK. In vitro and in vivo induction of apoptosis by capsaicin in pancreatic cancer cells is mediated through ROS generation and mitochondrial death pathway . Apoptosis. 2008;13: 1465-1478. 
31. Kim CS, Park WH, Park JY, et al. Capsaicin, a spicy component of hot pepper, induces apoptosis by activation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma in HT-29 human colon cancer cells . J Med Food. 2004;7: 267-273. 
32. Kawada T, Hagihara K, Iwai K. 
Effects of capsaicin on lipid metabolism in rats fed a high fat diet . J Nutr. 1986;116: 1272-1278 


Reduction of Cravings/Withdrawal 

33. McChargue DE, Collins FL, Jr., Cohen LM. Effect of non-nicotinic moist snuff replacement and lobeline on withdrawal symptoms during 48-h smokeless tobacco deprivation . Nicotine Tob Res. 2002;4: 195-200. 
34. Hatsukami DK, Ebbert JO, Edmonds A, et al. Smokeless tobacco reduction: preliminary study of tobacco-free snuff versus no snuff . Nicotine Tob Res. 2008;10: 77-85. 
35. Ebbert JO, Severson HH, Croghan IT, Danaher BG, Schroeder DR. Comparative effectiveness of the nicotine lozenge and tobacco-free snuff for smokeless tobacco reduction . Addict Behav. 2013;38: 2140-2145.